Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is a historical and cultural construct, as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them; Europe is generally considered as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. The primarily physiographic term “continent” as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities are not always reflected by the continent’s current overland boundaries.
Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometers (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 740 million (about 11% of world population) as of 2015.
The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe lies Oceanic climate, far southern Europe is a Mediterranean climate in the south, and eastern Europe is classified as Continental climate. The climate of western Europe is strongly conditioned by the Gulf Stream, which keeps mild air (for the latitude) over Northwestern Europe in the winter months, especially in Ireland, the UK and coastal Norway. Parts of the central European plains have a hybrid oceanic/continental climate. Four seasons occur in Eastern Europe, while southern Europe experiences distinct wet season and dry seasons, with prevailing hot and dry conditions during the summer months.
Europe is traditionally defined as one of seven continents. Physiographically, it is the northwestern peninsula of the larger landmass known as Eurasia (or the larger Afro-Eurasia); Asia occupies the eastern bulk of this continuous landmass and all share a common continental shelf. Europe’s eastern frontier is delineated by the Ural Mountains in Russia. The southeast boundary with Asia is not universally defined, but the modern definition is generally the Ural River or, less commonly, the Emba River. The boundary continues to the Caspian Sea, the crest of the Caucasus Mountains (or, less commonly, the Kura River in the Caucasus), and on to the Black Sea. The Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles conclude the Asian boundary. The Mediterranean Sea to the south separates Europe from Africa. The western boundary is the Atlantic Ocean. Iceland, though on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and nearer to Greenland (North America) than mainland Europe, is generally included in Europe for cultural reasons and because it is over twice as close to mainland Europe than to mainland North America. There is ongoing debate on where the geographical centre of Europe falls.
Figures for the population of Europe vary according to which definition of European boundaries is used. The population within the standard physical geographical boundaries was 740 million in 2010 according to the United Nations. In 2010 the population was 711 million, using the definition that Europe’s boundaries are on the continental divides of the Caucasus and Ural mountains and the Bosporous, including the populated parts of the countries of Russia and of Turkey. Population growth is comparatively low, and median age comparatively high in relation to the world’s other continents.
Since the Renaissance, Europe has had a dominating influence in culture, economics and social movements in the world. Its demography is important not only historically, but also in understanding current international relations and population issues.
Some current and past issues in European demography have included religious emigration, ethnic relations, economic immigration, a declining birth rate and an ageing population. In some countries, such as Poland, access to abortion is currently limited and it is entirely illegal in the Mediterranean nation of Malta. In the past, such restrictions and also restrictions on artificial birth control were commonplace throughout Europe.
The pursuit of higher education is an investment for life. Countries in European Union, with their diverse and intriguing range of regions, cities, cultures and languages, provide a rare and wonderful opportunity for both professional and personal development for students along with internationally acclaimed academic qualifications.
European Higher Education Virtual fair 2016 offers students in India and South Asia a unique opportunity to interact directly with universities in Europe to learn and explore opportunities for an excellent and affordable higher education. You can attend these webinars directly from the comfort of your home. In addition, this website offers details about the educational environment in each of the 28 European Union Member States along with the detailed information on over 50 Subject specialties offered at more than 170 universities in Europe.
1) We can study anywhere in Europe, and many language students take part in the Erasmus programme – gaining invaluable insight into our European neighbours.
2) University is diverse and rich in culture, with students across Europe coming to study at our great universities we meet and make friends with people all over the continent.
3) The EU promotes and funds research at universities, giving us a better opportunity to study at a higher level. Millions of pounds of funding are provided to UK universities that help create opportunities.
4) Subsidies to Green Business means more jobs whilst saving the planet; the EU provides millions of pounds of funding for green jobs and green energy.
5) We are protected against discrimination wherever we are in Europe. There are laws across EU member states to protect disabled people from workplace prejudice and give rights to LGBTQ+ people.
6) Maternity rights are enshrined in EU law, with many of those studying part-time at university often having caring responsibilities, regulation ensures that women can take leave from studies and work.
7) The 48-hour work week is protected by the Working Time Directive. Workers’ rights across Europe are enshrined in law, with set holiday entitlement and conditions.
8) The EU is abolishing mobile phone roaming charges, which means that wherever we are in Europe, we won’t have to pay extra to contact our family and friends.
9) We tackle the world’s problems together, providing support to refugees and greater humanitarian aid.
10) Tackling climate change needs cross-border efforts, and the EU holds us to account. The UK has been fined several times for breaking law on emissions. Inside Europe we have a better chance of taking a global lead on tackling global warming.